Augmented Prototyping as Design Means in Industrial Design Engineering

Jouke Verlinden, Assistant Professor; Promotor: Prof. Dr. Imre Horvath.

For referencing this page, you might want to use this bookmark:


Left: early example of Augmented Prototyping: 3D graphics are projected on a CNC milled car model [Verlinden et al., WSCG'03]
Click here to download a short movie (7 MB)
Click here for a large movie (40 MB)


The combination of physical and virtual artifact models certainly offers new opportunities, yet it is unknown when or how these technologies can be employed in the design process. In particular, our interest focuses on so-called Augmented Prototyping technologies that include principles of projection or video mixing to establish a dynamic prototype at a relatively low cost.

This PhD research project started in 2003 and will hopefully be concluded in 2008. It is investigating whether augmented prototyping techniques have an added value to the design process. This will be determined by using a case study approach, in which a collection of Augmented Prototyping tools will be made available to specific design cases in industry. This will lead to a better understanding on when such prototyping technologies can be applied and how the success can be measured. Furthermore, it will pinpoint at a number of technical challenges in developing and using Augmented Prototypes.

We developed and evaluated a number of installations:

  1. Ford Focus scale model on a turntable [WSCG'03 article],
  2. Kitchen furniture (full scale) [TMCE'04 paper],
  3. Discoteque design and pedestrian flows [TMCE'04 paper],
  4. Voice recorder, comparing an augmented with a traditional 2D computer prototype (macromedia director) [Design'04 paper]
  5. Sketch based modeling (Teddy) coupled with NC milling - to use in augmented prototyping. [Euro-uRapid'03 paper]
  6. Fluke portable oscilloscope - comparing augmented with traditional 2D screen prototype and the real product (tested by 24 subjects).
  7. Augmenting Automotive Clay Models (scale 1:5) - first scanned with 3D optical scanner and then extra imagery projected directly on the physical model. [CAID/CD'05 article]
  8. Material/color/texture selection for industrial design products (collaboration with Daniel Saakes of Studiolab) - 2 setups. First with wizard-of-Oz interaction, second with RFID tags and phidgets to select colors, materials and structure (texture).
  9. A computer-controlled turntable for exhibit purposes (in collaboration with Motio Development) - a 70 cm scale model of a racecar was milled and projected. All done within Daussault's Catia modeler. Was on show at the Dutch Design Week 2006 and during Innovatiebeurs Brabant 2007.
In total, more than 18 students collaborated in creating these installations, more than 90 senior design students and professional designers evaluated them. Furthermore, we have applied it to the regular design education, in particular 'design 1' (freshmen course). The coming period, a number of industrial case studies will be undertaken.

Scientific Publications on Augmented Prototyping

This is a short overview of the existing publications of our group concerning Augmented Prototyping. All articles are available for download.

Bibliographical reference

Short description

Verlinden, J., Horvath, I. (2007) "A Critical Systems Position on Augmented Prototyping Systems for Industrial Design", ASME CIE'07, DETC2007-35642, pp 1-9.

Introducing a reasoning framework to analyse the different case studies, based on organizational sciences (Critical Systems Thinking).

Verlinden, J., Suurmeijer, C., Horvath, I. (2007) "Which Prototype to Augment? A Retrospective Case Study on Industrial and User Interface Design", HCI International 2007 ( Beijing, China, July 22-27), Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 4563, Springer, pp.574-583.

Forerunning Case Study Report on the use of prototypes in design of Information Appiances (design of a handheld oscilloscope)

Verlinden, J., Horvath, I., Edelenbos, E. (2006) "Treatise of Technologies for Interactive Augmented Prototyping", proc. of Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering, pp 523-536.

Input and output technologies that should be considered when establishing Interactive Augmented Prototyping. Selection of design domains to elaborate in future reseach (automotive, information appliances, furniture)

Verlinden, J., Horvath, I., (2006) Framework for testing and validating Interactive Augmented Prototyping as a Design Means in Industrial Practice. Proceedings of Virtual Concept 2006.

Research approach of using multiple case studies, some early results.

Verlinden, J.C., Nam, T-J, Aoyama, H., Kanai, S. (2006) "Possibility of applying Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality to the Human Centered Design and Prototyping for Information Appliances", workshop at Virtual Concept 2006.

Compilation of research and experiences in using augmented prototyping for Information Appliances (jointly organized).

Verlinden, J., Kooijman, A., Edelenbos, E., Go, C. (2005) "Investigation on the Use of Illuminated Clay in Automotive Styling ", proc. of CAID/CD conference, pp. 514-519.

Implementation and evaluation of Augemented prototype made with styling clay.

Verlinden, J., de Smit, A., Horváth, I. (2004) “Case-based exploration of the Augmented Prototyping dialogue to support design ” Proc. Tools and Methods of Competitive
Engineering, pp. 245-254.

Two interior design cases: nightclub layout (1:40 scale) and kitchen (full scale). Focus on user interface.

Verlinden, J., van den Esker, W., Wind, L., Horváth, I. (2004) "Qualitative Comparison of Virtual and Augmented Prototyping of Handheld Products ", proc. of Design 2004, pp. 533-538.

Compared screen and augmented prototypes of a voice recorder.

Verlinden, J.C., de Smit, A., Peeters, A.W.J., van Gelderen, M.H.(2003) “Development of a Flexible Augmented Prototyping System ” Journal of WSCG, vol. 11(3), pp. 496-503.

Pilot implementation of augmented prototyping. Simple User Interface, turntable.

Verlinden, J.C., de Smit, A., Horváth, I., Epema, E.., de Jong, M., 2003," Time compression characteristics of the Augmented Prototyping Pipeline ", proceedings of the Euro-uRapid conference, pp. A/1-10

Investigation how rapid shapes can be digitally modelled and then Augmented Prototyped. Employed Teddy and CNC milling. Similar interface to initial pilot implementation

Related Research

Projector-based Augmented Reality is being investigated and extended by a collection of researchers, most of whom I am in direct contact. Please contact me if you want to be added to this overview.

Ramesh Raskar (MERL, USA)

work (first at UNC on Shader Lamps - the first and definitive idea on projector-based Augmented Reality; currenty very active at the Misubishi Electronics Research Laboratory, MERL). Lots of stuff on his webpage, including an article in MIT Technology Review on portable projectors (iLamps). His dissertation entitled "Projector-based Three dimensional Graphics" has all the theory inside.

Prof. Tek-Jin Nam (KAIST, Korea)

Head of the Collaboration and Interaction Design Research Lab, part of the Industrial design Engineering Department. Has developed a nice software package called MIDAS to interface diverse input devices (including cameras, phidgets etc) to Macromedia Director to create fast prototypes - available for download free! This package also includes the ARToolkit 3D tracking and video mixing capabilities. The website is in Korean, but has a good overview on publications. The MIDAS toolkit has a separate webpage in english.


Andre Stork (Fraunhofer Darmstadt, Germany)

Augmented Engineering, collaborates with Oliver Bimber and other computer graphics researchers in germany.


Oliver Bimber (Bauhaus University, Germany)

Computer graphics expert, collaborated with Andre Stork and gave a number of interesting tutorials on new Augmented Reality systems together with Ramesh Raskar at SIGGRAPH. Interesting concepts: Virtual Showcase and Smart Projectors.


Satoshi Kanai (Hokkaido University, Japan)

Associate professor in Information Systems, is involved in the large IT carrozeria project to support the design and manufacturing of information appliances. One of his graduate students, Sou HORIUCHI is focusing on the usability engineering technologies in the early phases of the design process.


Brett Stevens (University of Porthsmouth, UK)

Active in cognitive sciences, the concept of "presence" in augmented reality systems. Has developed the adopted "Object-Presence" as a part of his PhD dissertation. New PhD work by Emily Bennett (webpage quite empty, but had some publications on CHI).


Hiroshi Ishii (MIT MediaLab, USA)

The Tangible Media Group lead by Ishii has an impressive track record on tangible user interface systems and technology. Some are pivotal in projector-based design systems, like Urp[CHI'99] - the Urban planning workbench, and illuminated clay [CHI'02] for landscape analysis.


Related (non-scientific) work

Michael Naimark's Small projection Studies (1991) a very appealing and straigthforward example of capturing and projecting graphics on physical objects.

Create your own projector. Both on lumenlab and diyprojectorcompany (acquired by lumenlab in 2006), extensive pdf building manuals reside to create a perfect video projector for around $300 (cheaper lamp, some optics and a small LCD monitor with back removed).

Related publications

For now, just an uncommented collection of related work.

Bandyopadhyay, D.; Raskar, R.; Fuchs, H. (2002) "Dynamic Shader Lamps: Painting on Movable Objects", International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR), pp. 207-216.

Bimber, O., Emmerling, A., Jkennerm T. (2005) “Embedded Entertainment with Smart Projectors”, IEEE Computer, vol 38(1), pp 48-55.

Bimber, O., Stork, A., Branco, P. (2001) “Projection-based Augmented Engineering” proceedings of International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI’2001). Volume 1, pp. 787-791.


Horiuchi, S., Kanai, S., Kishinami, T., Hosoda, S., Ohshima, Y., Shiroma, Y., (2005) "Low-cost and Rapid Prototyping of UI-Embedded Mock-ups Using RFID and its Application to Usability Testing", Las vegas, USA : HCII2005, 2005. CD-ROM

Milgram, P., Kishino, F. A. (1994) “Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays.’ IECE Trans. on Information and Systems, vol. E77-D, no. 12, pp.1321-1329 .

Nam, T-J (2005) Sketch-Based Rapid Prototyping Platform for Hardware-Software Integrated Interactive Products” proceedings of CHI’05.

Nam, T-J, Lee, W. (2003) “Integrating Hardware and Software: Augmented Reality Based Prototyping Method for Digital Products”, CHI’03, pp.

Piper, B., Ratti, C., Ishii, H. (2002) “Illuminating Clay: A 3-D Tangible Interface for Landscape Analysis”, proceedings of CHI’2002, pp. 355 – 362.

Raskar, R., Low, K-L (2001) “Interacting with Spatially Augmented Reality” ACM international conference on Virtual Reality, Computer Graphics and Visualization in Africa (AFRIGRAPH), pp. 101-108.

Raskar, R., van Baar, J., Beardsley, P., Willwacher, T., Rao, S., Forlines, C. (2003) “iLamps: Geometrically Aware and Self-Configuring Projectors”, SIGGRAPH, Pages: 809 – 818.

Raskar, R., Ziegler, R., Willwacher, T. (2002) “Cartoon dioramas in motion” Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp: 7 – 13.

Ratti, C., Wang, Y., Piper, B., Ishii, H., Biderman, A. (2004) “PHOXEL-SPACE: an interface for exploring volumetric data with physical voxels”, Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Designing interactive systems, pp.289-296.

Stevens, B. 2002 “Physically Augmenting Reality: Human-Computer Interaction with Projection-Augmented Models”, dissertation at University of Portsmouth.

Name author: jverlinden
© 2016 TU Delft